Table 4. ADNI participants' characteristics for the control and Alzheimer's continuum groups in ADNI
Healthy controls (n = 128)Alzheimer's continuum (n = 474)P‐value (group effect)
Preclinical AD A+/TN− (n = 56)Preclinical AD A+/TN+ (n = 48)AD CDR = 0.5 (n = 289)AD CDR = 1 (n = 81)
Age, years72.5 (5.37)73.2 (5.96)76.5 (5.37)73.3 (7.05)73.8 (9.27)0.017a
Female, %48.446.452.142.650.60.542
APOE ε4 carriers, %14.839.358.376.574.1< 0.0001a
GRN rs5848 TT carriers, %b5.2013.26.9013.614.80.472
Education, y16.3 (2.79)16.5 (2.74)16.5 (2.47)15.9 (2.87)15.1 (2.78)0.010a
Cognitive tests, scores
ADNI‐Mem1.14 (0.59)1.04 (0.61)0.86 (0.56)−0.28 (0.64)−1.02 (0.46)< 0.0001a
ADNI‐EF0.94 (0.75)0.74 (0.70)0.40 (0.61)−0.12 (0.79)−1.07 (0.78)< 0.0001a
ADAS‐Cog115.96 (3.12)5.85 (3.06)6.54 (3.01)13.2 (5.34)23.2 (6.98)< 0.0001a
ADAS‐Cog138.94 (4.57)9.27 (4.51)10.2 (4.45)21.2 (7.38)34.6 (7.95)< 0.0001a
MMSE29.1 (1.12)28.9 (1.23)29.0 (1.20)26.3 (2.39)22.7 (2.06)< 0.0001a
CDR‐SB0.016 (0.09)0.054 (0.16)0.073 (0.21)2.09 (1.09)5.62 (1.17)< 0.0001a
CSF biomarkers, pg/mlc
T‐tau184 (31.8)166 (41)329 (77.5)382 (135)395 (137)< 0.0001a
P‐tau181P16.3 (2.87)15.4 (4.09)33.0 (8.93)39.1 (14.5)39.4 (15.1)< 0.0001a
1–421,455 (227)724 (193)712 (173)636 (167)575 (159)< 0.0001a
PGRNd1,502 (279)1,394 (365)1,569 (305)1,541 (343)1,649 (375)< 0.0001a
  • A, amyloid‐β biomarker status; Aβ1–42, amyloid‐β 42; AD, Alzheimer disease; APOE, apolipoprotein E; ADAS‐Cog, Alzheimer's disease Assessment Scale—cognitive subscale; ADNI‐Mem, ADNI memory composite score; ADNI‐EF, ADNI executive function composite score; CDR, clinical dementia rating; CDR‐SB, clinical dementia rating sum of boxes; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; MMSE, Mini‐Mental State Examination; N, neurodegeneration biomarker status; P‐tau181P, tau phosphorylated at threonine 181; T, tau pathology biomarker status; T‐tau, total tau; y, years.

  • Data are expressed as mean (M) and standard deviation (SD) or percentage (%), as appropriate. Pearson's chi‐square tests were used for the group comparisons of categorical variables and one‐way ANOVA to compare continuous variables.

  • a Significant differences. The P‐values indicated in the last column refer to the group effects in these tests.

  • b GRN rs5848 genotype was available in 77 “healthy controls” (60%), 38 “Preclinical AD A+/TN−” (68%), 29 “Preclinical AD A+/TN+” (60%), 154 “AD CDR = 0.5” (53%) and 54 “AD CDR = 1” (67%).

  • c The CSF core biomarker measurements were performed using the electrochemiluminescence immunoassays, total‐tau CSF, phospho‐tau(181P) CSF and Elecsys β‐amyloid(1–42) CSF. The Elecsys β‐amyloid(1–42) assay has an upper technical limit of 1700 pg/ml; the values above this limit were truncated to this value.

  • d CSF PGRN levels were log‐transformed and assessed by a linear model adjusted for age, gender and APOE ε4 status (see main text).