Table 5. Associations of CSF PGRN with cognitive measures in the Alzheimer's continuum category (ADNI sample)
Model 1 (unadjusted)Model 2 (adjusted for age, gender, APOE ε4 and education)Model 3 (also adjusted for Aβ1–42 and T‐tau)
βPβPβP
ADNI‐Mem−0.1450.002a−0.1400.002a−0.0800.064
ADNI‐EF−0.1450.002a−0.1500.0008a−0.1160.001a
ADAS‐Cog 11+0.1380.003a+0.1350.003a+0.0950.036a
ADAS‐Cog 13+0.1490.001a+0.1480.001a+0.1080.016a
MMSE−0.1260.006a−0.1260.006a−0.0870.052
CDR‐SB+0.1740.011a+0.1250.007a+0.0700.119
  • 1–42, amyloid‐β 42; ADAS‐Cog, Alzheimer's disease Assessment Scale—cognitive subscale; ADNI‐Mem, ADNI memory composite score; ADNI‐EF, ADNI executive function composite score; CDR‐SB, clinical dementia rating sum of boxes; MMSE, Mini‐Mental State Examination; T‐tau, total tau.

  • Associations between CSF PGRN and cognitive measures were studied only in the participants of the Alzheimer's continuum (n = 474) and were assessed by three different linear regression models. The standardized regression coefficients (β) and the P‐values are shown.

  • Note that higher levels of CSF PGRN are associated with worse cognitive performance in all tests investigated even when age, gender APOE ε4 status and education (Model 2) are accounted. The associations still remain after adding Aβ1–42 and T‐tau as added in the model (Model 3) in all tests except in ADNI‐Mem, MMSE and CDR‐SB.

  • The analysis was performed excluding CSF PGRN outliers. The same analysis including these outliers yielded similar results (Appendix Table S6). There were two subjects without ADAS‐Cog11 score and six subjects without ADAS‐Cog13 scores.

  • a Significant differences.