Table 1. Patient demographic and clinical characteristics
Placebo (n = 60)Borneol (n = 62)P
Age54.73 (16.00, 50.60–58.87)53.34 (14.05, 49.77–56.91)0.4138
Gender (Female/Male)27/3325/370.6015
VAS score (Before treatment)62.33 (15.66, 58.29–66.38)62.82 (15.11, 58.98–66.66)0.8167
VAS score (After treatment)42.75 (19.21, 37.79–47.71)30.81 (13.46, 27.39–34.23)0.0004
Absolute change in VAS score19.58 (17.33, 15.11–24.06)32.02 (14.97, 28.21–35.82)0.0001
% change in VAS score30.81 (29.07, 23.30–38.32)50.05 (21.02, 44.71–55.38)0.0001
% patients with a ≥ 50% pain relief35.0066.130.0006
  • Data are expressed as mean (SD, 95% CI) unless specified.